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The structure of Italian high commands

DrG

Member
The Italian high command was organized according to the following scheme since 1927 till June 1941:
Funzioni CSMG 1927.jpg


According to the chart above, the workflow was the following:
  1. The Head of the Government, the Military Intelligence Service (Servizio Informazioni Militari, SIM) or the Ministers of each Armed Force provide information of political and military nature to the Chief of General Staff;
  2. The Chief of General Staff, given these information, submits his proposals on military matters to the Head of the Government;
  3. The Head of the Government states his directives to the Ministers of the Armed Forces;
  4. The Ministers of the Armed Forces turn them into directives to their subjects, i.e. the Chiefs of Staff of each Armed Force;
  5. The Chiefs of Staff dispatch their executive orders to their subject units.
 

DrG

Member
Within the "Stato Maggiore Generale", the "Comando Supremo delle Forze Armate" ("Comando Supremo" in short) is activated during wartime, with the operational command on the subject units.

The Comando Supremo, established on 30 May 1940, was a very small office, because under Marshal Badoglio it had a mere function of coordination among the three Armed Forces and the Head of the Government, i.e. Mussolini, according to the Royal Decree n. 68 of 6 Feb. 1927.

The following was the organization of the Stato Maggiore Generale in June 1940 (these schemes indicate the ranks of the officers for each function and their number):
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page_24.jpg

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DrG

Member
After his return to Rome from the Greek campaign, Gen. Ugo Cavallero completely updated the Stato Maggiore Generale and the Royal Decree-Law n. 661 of 27 June 1941 gave it the command on the Comandi Superiori of the subject Armed Forces.
This was the structure of the functions of the Italian high command since June 1941:
CSMG.jpg


According to the chart above, the workflow was the following:
  1. The Head of the Government, the Military Intelligence Service (Servizio Informazioni Militari, SIM), the Ministries of each Armed Force or the Ministry of Foreign Affairs provide information of political and military nature to the Chief of General Staff;
  2. The Chief of General Staff, given these information, submits his proposals on military matters to the Head of the Government;
  3. The Head of the Government states his directives to the Chief of General Staff;
  4. The Chief of General Staff turns them into military directives to his subjects, i.e. the Chiefs of Staff of each Armed Force or the High Commanders of each of the overseas Armed Forces (Libya, Italian East Africa, Italian Egean Islands);
  5. The Chiefs of Staff or High Commanders dispatch their executive orders to their subject units.
 

DrG

Member
This was the organization of the Stato Maggiore Generale (the Duce was above its chief but was not member of the Staff, of course) after June 1941:

CSMG organigramma 1941.jpg
 

DrG

Member
Each command had (and still has today) an acronym, written in capitalized letters and used as telegraphic address, with which it was known:
  • Stato Maggiore Generale: STAMAGE
  • Stato Maggiore del Regio Esercito: STATESERCITO
  • Stato Maggiore della Regia Marina: MARISTAT
  • Stato Maggiore della Regia Aeronautica: STATAEREO
Only during a war, within each Staff there was also a "Comando Superiore" ("High Command"):
  • Comando Supremo delle Forze Armate: SUPERCOMANDO
  • Comando Superiore del Regio Esercito: SUPERESERCITO
  • Comando Superiore della Regia Marina: SUPERMARINA
  • Comando Superiore della Regia Aeronautica: SUPERAEREO
 

DrG

Member
While usually each Armed Force followed its chain of command, in certain theaters of war the command was concentrated in the hands of a single organism. In these cases, a "Comando Superiore delle Forze Armate" (in brief: Supercomando) was created. I see that often these Supercomandi (plural of Supercomando) are mistaken with Armies of Regio Esercito, but they were two distinct units, despite the fact that usually the commander of an Army was also the commander of the "Comando Superiore".

This is a list of the "Comandi Superiori" activated during WW2, with their telegraphic addresses:
  • Comando Superiore delle Forze Armate dell'Africa Settentrionale Italiana: SUPERASI
  • Comando Superiore delle Forze Armate della Libia: SUPERLIBIA (it replaced SUPERASI on 16 Aug. 1942, when the Armata Corazzata Italo-Tedesca, ACIT, was put directly under the Comando Supremo, wich in turn operated in Egypt through the Delegazione del Comando Supremo in Africa Settentrionale, DELEASE)
  • Comando Superiore delle Forze Armate dell'Africa Orientale Italiana: SUPERCOMANDO AOI (I am not 100% sure of this address)
  • Comando Superiore delle Forze Armate dell'Egeo: SUPEREGEO
  • Comando Superiore delle Forze Armate dell'Albania: SUPERALBA
  • Comando Superiore delle Forze Armate della Grecia: SUPERGRECIA
  • Comando Superiore delle Forze Armate della Slovenia e della Dalmazia: SUPERSLODA
  • Comando Superiore delle Forze Armate della Sicilia
  • Comando Superiore delle Forze Armate della Sardegna
 
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